DUSHANBE, Tajikistan —The Tajik people went at each other for five years in a civil war that killed 60,000, and then they came up for air and decided they would prefer not to create another Afghanistan.
So the fighting stopped.
A coalition government that encompassed all the contending enemies was formed in the mid-1990s. Brazen corruption flourished. Poverty deepened and now reigns supreme. The countryside has been floored by three years of drought. A million people risk starvation this winter without aid, proportionately just as many as in Afghanistan. But the rural byways and city street corners have been cleared of hoods with Kalashnikovs.
Dr. Turdyali Khajayev hails from the region of Rogun, where the Soviet Union once planned to build one of the world's largest hydroelectric dams. Construction started but was never completed. Huge apartment blocks stand deserted. The place is an ugly monument to big dreams that failed.
Yesterday, Khajayev came to Dushanbe, where life has picked up a bit the past two years, to visit his son. Tajiks don't have big dreams anymore, he said, just little dreams of a life together without guns. They'll suffer nearly anything else, if they can keep that.
Khajayev was standing in the Central Park of Culture and Rest, doffing his hat before a monument to the man whose name once graced both the main avenue running alongside and the park itself: Vladimir I. Lenin. Yesterday was the 84th anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. This was once a day when the park was so crammed with people you couldn't make your way through, when orchestras played and couples danced.
Yesterday, 50 members of the Communist Party laid flowers at the monument at 7:30 a.m., so as not to make a scene, and then Khajayev, 60, stopped by at lunchtime in a fit of nostalgia.
"Life was good," he said. "People had jobs, intellectuals could study, there was culture - and in people's minds all this was connected to Lenin."
In 1990, the last full year of the regime that Lenin founded, people here rioted over rumors that Armenians fleeing persecution in Azerbaijan would be given preference for new apartments. Today, abandoned buildings are filled with squatters, beggars young and old patrol the streets, there are no new apartments, and no one's raising a voice about it.
"There's no gas, no light, no pay, no money," said a souvenir photographer in the park. "But there are no automatics [guns] now, either."
He was exaggerating. Dushanbe is ahead of the rest of the country. The proceeds of corruption, gun-running and heroin smuggling have to be spent somewhere. A few people here do have money. The chaikhonas, or teahouses, have reopened. Stores are stocked. The park flowers are trimmed. Beautiful new buses from Shanghai run up and down the avenues.
The civil war, followed by the drought, compounded by the cotton plantation economy built by the Soviets, has ruined the countryside. Forty percent of Tajikistan's budget used to come from Moscow, and now that's gone. Agricultural production is 55 percent of what it was a decade ago, according to Ardag Maghdessian, head of the World Food Program office here. Cotton production is down from 1 million tons a year to 300,000. Food production has been cut in half.
"Social services?" Meghdessian said. "Psssssht - crumbled."
A typical pension is $2 a month.