Dr. Lance Everett Wyatt, 42, of Sherman Oaks is charged with four misdemeanor counts of surreptitious filming and one misdemeanor count each of battery and sexual battery.
Authorities say Wyatt secretly videotaped patients who undressed to see the doctor for care after surgery.
One patient found a camera in the office and gave it to police.
A year-long investigation by the city attorney's office and the Medical Board of California led to Thursday's arrest.
A plastic surgeon who knows Wyatt said he was shocked by the news.
"I've known Dr. Wyatt for years," Randal Haworth told KTLA. "I've always known him as a very humble, congenial, intelligent, inquisitive surgeon."
Wyatt was a clinical fellow in surgery at Harvard Medical School and was a resident at Harvard and UCLA, where he earned his medical degree, according to his website.
He has authored six textbook chapters and was named one of the 50 Leaders of Tomorrow by EBONY Magazine, the website says.
Wyatt's office is on West 3rd Street near the Beverly Center.