The state has spent more than $131,000 and countless hours of study in a bid for the Marine Stewardship Council's seal of approval, a symbol of sustainability held by about 10 percent of the world's fish species and fish products — including the cod, haddock, hoki and pollock sold by 7,000 McDonald's restaurants in Europe. Maryland striped bass is the only fish on the East Coast being independently measured against the council's standards.
"It's not a silver bullet for all of our issues," said Tom O'Connell, fisheries director for the Department of Natural Resources. "But [certification] will say that Maryland striped bass is managed in a manner that ensures it will be here for a long time and that it is one of the best-managed fish on the East Coast."
Larry Simns, president of the Maryland Watermen's Association, said being able to put the eco-label on Maryland striped bass to get a premium price will help his members gain more control over their livelihood and ensure higher quality fish are delivered directly to upscale markets. Prices could increase their dockside take from about $2 per pound to as much as $4 for the fish, known locally as rockfish.
"Fishermen will take better care of their fish because they're worth more," Simns said.
However, not everyone is convinced that the sustainability seal is worth the effort — or the annual fees and royalties paid to the Marine Stewardship Council by individuals and businesses.
Greenpeace officials will not endorse the council's process, saying no credible certification system exists. During the assessment process, the organization's scientists have challenged a number of certification proposals, including one for Alaska pollock.
"I think it is possible for certifications to be useful, but I haven't seen that MSC is that," said John Hocevar, Greenpeace's oceans campaign manager. "The standards are too weak, and even the standards they have are not rigorously held. There have been a lot of questionable certifications. A lot."
Marine biologist Chris Pincetich of the Turtle Island Restoration Network in California called the certification "an industry-driven process … and a profit-driven marketing campaign rather than a science-based review."
Kerry Coughlin, the council's regional director, has heard the criticisms before. But, she said, the demand for sustainable seafood is driven by the industry, which wants to preserve fish populations long-term, and by consumers who want to do the right thing. Worldwide, the council's seal appears on 10,000 seafood products.
"It's not a panacea for all ills and problems," she acknowledged. "The MSC process gives people a way to be part of the solution. If people are asking for and buying it, they are rewarding those entities that have made a commitment to fish sustainably."
Consumers are increasingly drawn to products labeled sustainable and organic. The Organic Consumers Association says the eco-friendly movement fuels a $30 billion dollar industry in the United States, and grows 10 percent to 20 percent annually.
Sustaining Maryland's striped bass population hasn't been easy. The state imposed a five-year moratorium in 1985 to halt overfishing after catch numbers dropped from 14.3 million pounds in 1973 to 1.7 million pounds a decade later. Since the stock rebounded, Maryland's catch has been closely monitored by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission.
In 2010, watermen caught 2.15 million pounds of wild striped bass with a fair market value of about $8.6 million. (Aquaculture produces about 11 million pounds of striped bass annually that fetch a slightly higher price.)
While the federal government has set standards for what can be called organic, no definition has been established for sustainability. The Marine Stewardship Council, a nonprofit organization based in London, attempts to fill that void.
Created in 1995 by the World Wildlife Fund and Unilever, the second-largest consumer-goods company in the world, the council has commitments from more than 1,800 companies, including Walmart, Target, Costco and theme parks run by Busch Entertainment, to buy sustainable seafood.
The council charges an annual fee — ranging from $250 to $2,000 — plus royalties to fishermen, wholesalers, markets and restaurants for the right to use its trademarked logo. McDonald's, for example, will pay 0.5 percent of the cost of 100 million frozen fillets to the council in return for being able to place the blue logo on its fish sandwich wrappers in Europe. Logo licensing provides more than 40 percent of the council's revenue.
However, the council doesn't actually conduct sustainability audits. It relies on third-party assessments, in Maryland's case Nova Scotia-based Intertek Moody Marine Ltd., which was paid $131,801 by the state. Moody is reviewing the striped bass management plan and commercial fishing practices against council standards to decide whether the state is worthy of the blue seal of approval.