FREDERICK ——Jose Soto doesn't pay attention to politics in Frederick County. He's new to town and spends much of his time working at an apple-processing plant in Pennsylvania. But he heard something a few weeks ago about the county making English its official language.
"I think it's a little racist," Soto said as he stopped by a Latino grocery store in Frederick before heading to work one afternoon last week. The 32-year-old was born in Guatemala and emigrated to Los Angeles as a child.
In 2008, Frederick County adopted a non-binding resolution that declared English the official language. Back then, there weren't enough votes to pass a stronger law, says Blaine Young, president of the county's board of commissioners. But in 2010, Republicans won every seat on the five-member panel; four were newcomers.
Young, a former city alderman and son of Democratic state Sen. Ronald Young, hosts a talk-radio show on a local station. He also owns Taxi-Fiesta, a cab company that serves Spanish-speaking customers and employs drivers from Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador and other countries.
"The No. 1 message we want to put in Frederick County is that we put legal, law-abiding citizens first," Young said at his commission office in downtown Frederick. "I'm glad that other counties are following suit. I think it's a non-partisan issue. I think it's a common sense issue."
According to the U.S. Census, about 4 percent of the county's population speaks English at a level less than "very well."
The law says all official county actions must be taken in English — something that's done already. It allows exceptions, including for health and safety reasons, and for compliance with federal laws on issues such as voting rights.
"We felt it stated the obvious," Young said.
Experts say that the so-called "Official English" or "English-Only" movements go back hundreds of years, though today's target Hispanics. Proponents have been much more successful at the local level than nationally. Today, 31 states have English as their official language.
Such sentiments have "long, long roots" — all the way back to the 1700s, when there was opposition to the language spoken by German immigrants in the Midwest, said Rameez Abbas, a political scientist and coordinator of the global security master's program at Johns Hopkins University. A similar anti-German feeling existed in the World War I era.
"The thing with the current variant of the English-Only movement is that they try very hard to portray the current group of immigrants as a break from the past," Abbas said. "They want to say they are somehow different."
And the idea that immigrants don't want to learn English is a myth, experts say.
"Immigrants are transitioning faster to English today than ever before, and the second generation is losing the immigrant language at a much faster pace than before," said Terrence Wiley, president of the Center for Applied Linguistics, a non-profit organization in Washington, D.C.
Opponents call such measures a legally meaningless gesture meant to send an anti-immigrant message.
"It's a government declaration that people are not welcome," said Kimberley Propeack, political director of the group CASA de Maryland, the state's largest immigrant advocacy organization. "It emerges out of the sense on the part of individual politicians that there are cultural shifts that they're uncomfortable with."
Frederick County, she noted, is the only one in Maryland whose sheriff's deputies have federal authorization to begin deportation proceedings against undocumented immigrants charged with certain crimes. Local officials also have tried to prohibit illegal immigrants from renting housing, and proposed counting undocumented schoolchildren.
Fifth-term Frederick County Commissioner Dave Gray cast the only vote against the language legislation. It "says we don't like people who aren't like us," he said.
"It doesn't accomplish anything material," Gray said last week. "It simply creates an atmosphere of antagonism."