Adjuncts make up about half of the teachers at the four-year schools within the University System of Maryland, which said in a statement that "as a matter of principle, the USM is not asking institutions to seek to limit hours of adjunct faculty to avoid their being classified as full time under the Affordable Care Act."
Up to 600 University System of Maryland adjuncts are expected to be eligible for benefits under the act, at an annual cost of about $10,000 apiece for those who sign up. If everyone joined in, it would cost around $6 million per year.
It's unclear how many Maryland community college adjuncts would have become eligible for benefits if their hours weren't limited.
"Health care is expensive. It's just plain expensive," said Bernard Sadusky, executive director of the Maryland Association of Community Colleges.
All of the state's 16 community colleges were grappling with the issue, Sadusky said, though their solutions are far from uniform. Part of the problem is that there is no consistent method for measuring the hours that an adjunct instructor works. They're typically paid according to class credits, which fold in preparation and grading time, instead of actual time worked.
A spokeswoman for Harford Community College said the school has long had a strict policy of limiting adjuncts to levels that are well under the threshold for Obamacare, so none of its adjuncts would have qualified for benefits anyway.
Other schools — including the Community College of Baltimore County, where Poff works — said they have had long-standing policies restricting adjunct hours, but that the rules were often bent. The Affordable Care Act led them to re-evaluate their practices.
"Our goal is not to hurt people, it is in fact to obey the law within some pretty tight financial constraints," said CCBC President Sandra L. Kurtinitis. Adjuncts "are an important resource within our college community. There's no intent on our part to try to misuse them."
The school has limited adjuncts to roughly three of its three-credit classes, Kurtinitis said. The school has also taken the initiative to convert some part-time positions to full-time, based on need. Kurtinitis expects to have about 15 new full-time faculty positions in place before the Affordable Care Act is implemented.
Other schools will simply hire more adjuncts to spread out the course load, Sadusky said, adding that community colleges are performing "an intense examination of what their options are and trying to be as humanistic" as possible.
Some schools in other states have set similar limits.
In Virginia, adjuncts who are state employees will be required to work 29 hours or less per week — to avoid the 30-hour threshold — under a February directive from Republican Gov. Bob McDonnell that applies to all of the state's part-time workers. Individual institutions in Ohio and Pennsylvania are also limiting adjunct hours.
Anne Arundel Community College, which has 880 adjunct teachers — 77 percent of its teaching staff — actually raised the number of hours it allows adjuncts to work after realizing that the earlier limit was too low.
Community colleges in Carroll, Howard and Prince George's counties are drawing lines based on class credit hours.
"With the help of an outside consultant to analyze workloads of all of our part-time employees, including the adjunct credit faculty, it was estimated that it would cost the college approximately $2 million in health benefit costs if no workload changes were instituted," Howard Community College said in a statement. "Being unable to afford the cost of this unfunded mandate, HCC began on June 1, 2013, limiting the adjunct credit faculty to 22 credits per year."
Carroll County said that it also would proactively manage adjunct schedules because the school "(like many publicly-funded employers) is not in the position to significantly expand the numbers of individuals who are offered health care insurance," President Faye Pappalardo said in a statement.
The colleges said they will exempt some adjunct professors in specialized, high-demand fields — such as cybersecurity and physical sciences — from the limits because those instructors are hard to find.
Montgomery College declined to discuss its policy, instead issuing a statement saying, "We will comply with the provisions of the Affordable Care Act, and we will keep our College community informed."
Adjunct faculty at Montgomery recently unionized.
Joan Bevelaqua, who lives in Howard County and teaches painting at Howard Community College, believes other faculties will soon follow suit because of the cuts under the Affordable Care Act.
"We're 80 percent of faculty. We can come together and talk to each other about how this is affecting us," she said. "It could be a movement."