Enolia P. McMillan
Matriarch of NAACP: First female national president played key role in headquarters' move to city
NAACP President Enolia P. McMillan and the Rev. John Wright begin their journey to Ocean City's Boardwalk in 1986 to demonstrate against businesses' hiring practices. (Sun file photo / July 6, 1986)
1904 - 2006
Enolia P. McMillan, the first female president of the NAACP and an educator whose career spanned 42 years.
Mrs. McMillan, whose father was born a slave, became a teacher in 1927 and quickly became a crusader for equal pay for black teachers and better schools for black students. In 1935, she helped to reactivate the city chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and remained an active force in it for more than 50 years. She played a key role in persuading the NAACP to move its national headquarters from New York to Baltimore in 1986.
Kweisi Mfume, former president and CEO of the NAACP and a close friend of the McMillan family, called Mrs. McMillan a "pillar of the civil rights movement."
"She was very much the matriarch of the NAACP," he said. "She was a fighter who was relentless in pursuing justice."
Mr. Mfume credited Mrs. McMillan and former NAACP Executive Director Benjamin L. Hooks with orchestrating the NAACP's move from New York to Northwest Baltimore. While Mr. Hooks and others helped craft a financial package to initiate the move, it was Mrs. McMillan whose on-the-ground efforts made it a reality, Mr. Mfume said.
"It was Mrs. McMillan who went out and sold pies and sold commemorative bricks and held raffles and cajoled the members of that board to think about finally owning a building of their own," he said.
The eldest of four children, she was born Oct. 20, 1904, in Willow Grove, Pa., to John Pettigen, who was born a slave in Virginia, and Elizabeth Fortune Pettigen, a domestic worker.
The family moved to Charles County and settled in Baltimore when she was about 8. The family attended Calvary Baptist Church on Garrison Boulevard in West Baltimore, where she, her mother and sister were active in the church's community programs.
In 1922, she graduated from Douglass High School in Baltimore.
She wanted to be a doctor -- a pediatrician because she liked children -- but heeding the realities of a black woman's opportunity in that day, she decided to become a teacher, said her eldest granddaughter, Tiffany Beth McMillan.
She spent five hours a day commuting from Baltimore to Washington by train to attend Howard University, where she received a bachelor's degree in education in 1927. She began her first teaching job at Denton High School in Caroline County. In 1928, she became a principal in Charles County.
In 1933, she earned her master's degree from Columbia University. Her thesis was "The Factors Affecting Secondary Education for Negroes in Maryland Counties."
In 1935, she returned to Baltimore to teach. That same year, she played a key role in reactivating the city chapter of the NAACP.
Her experience in the schools put her in direct contact with the pernicious effects of segregation. When she worked in Charles County there was only one secondary institution for blacks while there were five high schools for whites even though the population of blacks and whites were about the same, she recalled in a 1986 interview in The Sun.
The situation was even more unequal because it was difficult for black students to get to their school's remote location.
"So we got together and bought a little used yellow school bus and named it Amos," she said. "It gave us fits but it also got out to students for almost 40 miles around. The next year we bought a second bus and by the third year, we were up to having a brand-new bus. By the time I left, we had three buses."
On Dec. 26, 1935, she married Betha D. McMillan. They had a son, Betha D. McMillan Jr., in 1940.