The 42-year-old former Sprint Cup driver was arrested Tuesday night at his home in the western North Carolina town of Catawba, according to the Catawba County Sheriff's Office. Mayfield posted $3,000 bond and was scheduled to appear in court Wednesday.
No other details were immediately available.
The phone at his home rang unanswered Wednesday morning.
Mayfield was suspended from NASCAR in May 2009 for failing a random drug test. Mayfield denied he was using an illegal drug, but NASCAR said he tested positive for methamphetamines.