To Grove, the animals' broken bones are mostly unpredictable, unexplainable — and ultimately unpreventable.
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As Saturday's Preakness approaches, trainers such as Grove find themselves part of a national debate over industry practices regarding horses' health and safety. Trainers were placed on the defensive by recent media reports and congressional testimony examining racehorse deaths and questioning whether the prevalence of drugs administered to the animals contributes to breakdowns.
Interviews with Grove and some of his Maryland peers expose deep-rooted philosophical differences between many trainers on one side, and critics — including lawmakers and some industry officials and veterinarians — on the other.
"The easy thing to say is (to blame) the drugs," said Grove, who had a Preakness entry last year in Norman Asbjornson and has another on Saturday in Pretension. "I think it's too easy of an excuse."
While some trainers have reputations for being "clean," reform advocates say many others are often too entrenched in their industry — and have too much invested in their horses' performances — to appreciate the harm being done by corticosteroids and other drugs they say are routinely overused.
Veterinarian Kathy Papp likens the current environment to the former steroids era in Major League Baseball when drug use was so rampant that — according to congressional testimony and public reports — some players felt they needed to use to keep pace. Baseball didn't begin year-round testing until 2007.
Most horse-racing drug tests are done immediately surrounding races, and Papp said racing — which is overseen by 38 state commissions with varying rules — could benefit by comprehensive, out-of-competition testing and improved security measures such as cameras in barns.
"Nobody is doing it because no one has the funding," said Papp, who is based at Penn National racecourse in Grantville, Pa.
"Some of the trainers really try to do a good job, but then they find out they can't compete unless they do what everybody else is doing," she said. "I have little trainers complaining to me all the time about how the big trainers must be doing something illicit."
The industry debate over horse deaths was intensified by a recent New York Times report that, on average, 24 horses die each week on American tracks. The newspaper said bigger purses encouraged trainers to enter unfit horses and contributed to the deaths of 30 horses at Aqueduct Racetrack. It said most of the top 20 American trainers ranked by purses won — including Doug O'Neill, who trains Kentucky Derby winnerI'll Have Another — have been sanctioned during their careers for medication rules violations involving horses.
There is also continuing debate about whether 3-year-olds are mature enough to handle Triple Crown races such as the Preakness, and whether a national governing body is needed to ensure that race-day rules are standardized across all states.
O'Neill has denied that he had practiced "milkshaking," slang for giving horses a concoction of baking soda and other ingredients intended to combat horses' fatigue. He faces up to a 180-day suspension in California for having a horse test positive for an elevated level of total carbon dioxide — possibly a result of milkshaking — for a third time in the state. He's also been suspended and fined for the same offense in Illinois.
"Swear to God I've never done it," O'Neill said earlier this week outside of Barn D at Pimlico. "Who would even do that to a horse? There's nobody we have who would do that sort of thing, and we care for every one of our horses the best way we know how. That includes monitoring everything that goes into them."
U.S. Sen. Tom Udall, a New Mexico Democrat, has used the term "chemical warfare" to describe what he considers unscrupulous doping of horses. He and other lawmakers worry that painkillers and other drugs can mask horses' pain that would otherwise signal impending harm on the track. Udall is a co-sponsor of pending legislation that would bar the use of any drugs — not just steroids — in a horse's system that could affect race-day performance.
A number of states, including Maryland, have banned steroids in racing in the past five years. The drugs were not regulated by Maryland as recently as 2008.
Horse racing is often a family business. Many trainers — such as Grove, a former exercise rider and groom who trains horses in Bowie — grew up around horses and became steeped in the industry.
"I came up the right way, and most trainers do come up the right way," Grove said. "They understand what this drug and what that drug does."