WASHINGTON—The past year has not been an easy one for John Ashcroft. He lost his Senate seat to a dead man. He wasn't President Bush's first choice for attorney general, and he came to the job only after a withering confirmation process.
Even now, as he emerges as one of the most prominent figures in the administration's counterterrorism effort -- and as perhaps the most activist attorney general in decades -- Ashcroft still finds himself on the defensive.
His former Senate colleagues want Ashcroft to appear before the Judiciary Committee to answer questions about the investigation tactics.
One liberal activist calls the attorney general "the most dangerous threat to civil liberties in the federal government."
Ashcroft is unapologetic about his aggressive response to the Sept. 11 attacks. In the hours after the lethal hijackings, Ashcroft has recounted, Bush took him aside, looked him in the eye and said, "John, I want you to prevent that."
"We simply are not going to tolerate terrorists coming to this country to kill thousands of innocent Americans," Ashcroft said in a recent television interview. "We're going to use every tool in the American judicial system and justice system to protect innocent lives."
The Justice Department's sweeping response, though, has alarmed some in Congress, as well as legal scholars and civil liberties groups. Judiciary Committee Chairman Patrick J. Leahy of Vermont and the committee's ranking Republican, Sen. Orrin Hatch of Utah, sent a terse letter to Ashcroft, asking him to appear at a hearing scheduled for Wednesday.
Rep. Bob Barr, a conservative Georgia Republican, has called for similar House hearings and said last week that the federal government is moving to "suspend a whole range of civil liberties for crimes committed in this country, and that is something we should not do lightly."
Other critics have aimed more directly at Ashcroft, 59, a deeply religious and strictly conservative former Missouri senator and governor whose nomination for attorney general was sharply opposed by Democratic senators and liberal interest groups.
"Terrorism isn't the only threat to our way of life," said Ralph G. Neas, who as president of the liberal advocacy group People for the American Way singled out Ashcroft as the government's worst threat to civil liberties.
"We need an attorney general who will stand up to terrorists, but we also need an attorney general who will stand up for the Constitution and the Bill of Rights," Neas said.
Ashcroft defends his actions in the fight against terrorism, saying that none bypasses constitutional protections and all are urgently needed to capture a dangerous, unpredictable foreign enemy.
Over the past year, Ashcroft has proved his ability to absorb even the toughest hits.
Last November, his political career appeared finished when he lost his Senate seat after one term to Democratic Gov. Mel Carnahan, who had died in a plane crash shortly before the election, too late for ballots to be reprinted. The state's new governor appointed Carnahan's widow, Jean, to the seat.
Ashcroft bowed out gracefully and did not challenge the result in court, but some of his supporters argued that Jean Carnahan did not meet a constitutional requirement that a senator must be a citizen of his or her state on Election Day.
The former Yale football player and University of Chicago law graduate wasn't an automatic pick for the Bush Cabinet. He was tapped for attorney general only after some conservatives objected to the front-runner, Montana Gov. Marc Racicot.
Ashcroft's nomination met stiff resistance from liberal advocacy groups and Democrats. Former senators traditionally are afforded deference in confirmation hearings, but Ashcroft took a bruising. The Judiciary Committee affirmed his nomination by a vote of 10-8, virtually along party lines. In the full Senate, 42 Democrats voted against him.
In his first year on the job, the new attorney general has set a distinctly more activist -- and more conservative -- course for the Justice Department. An order issued earlier this month attempted to block Oregon's physician-assisted suicide law by prohibiting doctors from prescribing lethal doses of federally controlled drugs to terminally ill patients. (A federal judge has issued a temporary restraining order halting enforcement of that ruling.)