Dear Liz: My spouse has tenure at a university. Given that one of us will always be employed, should we change the way we look at the amount of money we keep in an emergency fund or our risk tolerance for investments?
Answer: Even tenured professors can get fired or laid off. Tenure was designed to protect academic freedom, but professors can lose their jobs because of serious misconduct, incompetence or economic cutbacks, such as when a department is eliminated or a whole university is closed. About 2% of tenured faculty are dismissed in a typical year, according to the National Education Assn.'s Higher Education Department.
That's more job security than in most occupations, of course. Your spouse also may have access to a defined benefit pension, which would give him or her a guaranteed income stream in retirement. Those factors mean you reasonably can take more risk with your other investments.
As for your emergency fund, you may be fine with savings equal to three months of expenses. But consider that if your spouse were to be dismissed, he or she probably would have a tough time finding an equivalent position. If the institution starts having financial difficulties or if there is any reason to suspect that he or she could be dismissed, a fatter fund could come in handy.
Getting the most from Social Security
Dear Liz: I will be 68 this summer and plan on working two more years. My wife retired in 2011 after turning 60. We would like to maximize our Social Security and are planning on having her take spousal benefits when I retire. When she turns 70, she can switch to her own benefit. How much of my benefit will she receive if she starts receiving it when she is 64 and I'm 70?
Answer: If your goal is to maximize your Social Security benefits as a couple, you should rethink having her apply before her full retirement age.
If she applies before she turns 66, she won't have the choice of switching benefits later. The Social Security Administration will compare the benefit she has earned with her spousal benefit (basically half of your benefit, reduced by the fact that she is applying early). If her spousal benefit is larger, she will get her own benefit plus an amount of money to make up the difference between the two. What she won't get is the option to let her benefit continue to grow so that she can switch to that larger check later. The option to switch is available only if she waits until her full retirement age to apply.
There are several good online calculators to help you compare your Social Security options, including ones at AARP and T. Rowe Price.
Credit cards and credit ratings
Dear Liz: Over the last couple of years I have managed to pay off my credit cards. I know that closing those accounts will hurt my credit so I kept them open. When I checked my credit report, I found that my rating had gone down and was told that I had to actually use the credit cards and pay them off to keep my score up. I've been doing that over the last year or so and my credit score responded well. This past month my credit score went down again by a few points and I learned that it was because the credit card companies had rewarded my diligence by raising my credit limit. This apparently hurt my score. What's up with this? Is there any way not to get dinged by the reporting agencies?
Answer: Higher credit limits would reduce the percentage of available credit you are using, and that should help your credit scores, rather than hurt them. So the score you're seeing either isn't a FICO score, which is the score used by most lenders, or you are being given questionable information about what affects your scores. Many score monitoring systems are set up to give you explanations for any change in your numbers, but those explanations might be vague or might not accurately depict what's truly influencing your scores.
Your FICO credit scores change all the time, based on the ever-changing information in your credit reports. Variations of a few points shouldn't be a cause of concern. Continue to use your cards lightly but regularly, paying the balances off in full each month. Over time, the variations will smooth out into higher scores.
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