Overcoming an Anticlimax
It begins as a swelling of excitement and tension. Then, it's like falling off a cliff. That's how Linda Banner, 59, describes an orgasm, the delicious sensation that she couldn't experience for the first decade of her sex life.
Banner, whose experience isn't atypical, pins the root of her "anorgasmia" on a jumble of "goofy" ideas--like rigid notions that sex is for keeping men satisfied and that women shouldn't touch their nether regions. Things finally clicked for the Californian when she learned to grant herself license to relax, explore, and enjoy her sensuality.
Of course, medical factors can mute or kill orgasms in women who once felt them, and such cases may require treatment. Medications are big offenders, especially antidepressants that boost serotonin in the brain. Diabetes, neurological diseases like Parkinson's, and conditions that cause clitoral scarring or numbing can also affect orgasm. So, too, can sexual pain problems or anything that may lower libido, such as a hormonal imbalance. But medicine might fix what medicine has caused: The Journal of the American Medical Association recently reported that Viagra may counteract antidepressant-related orgasm problems.
Research suggests that women can learn to intensify their orgasms, giving hope to those who don't normally experience them. By studying the brains of those who can climax just by thinking about it, behavioral neuroscientist Barry Komisaruk and his Rutgers University team found that both physical stimulation and thoughts of physical stimulation activate many of the same brain areas. He is now showing anorgasmic women real-time scans of their brain activity as they self-stimulate, aiming to see if they can teach themselves to climax.
Even some women who can orgasm don't experience all three known types: vaginal, cervical, and clitoral. In fact, only a minority of women can reliably orgasm through penetration alone; most require clitoral stimulation, as by oral sex or touching. A long-standing theory suggests that if a woman's clitoris is more than an inch from her vagina, penetrative sex is less likely to produce a climax, says Kim Wallen, a neuroscientist in Emory University's psychology department. No matter, he says. "For many women, a helping hand works just fine."
When Sex Drive Dries Up
For years, Kate Johnson didn't know she had a sex drive. On the birth control pill since age 17, she participated without desire. Now, she uses a different contraceptive--and often makes the first advance with her husband. Ironic as it may seem, suppressed libido is a known side effect of the pill. "It was a relief to figure out that I was normal," says Johnson, 39, of Littleton, Colo., "as opposed to some sort of undersexed person."
Many women find themselves stalled by sluggish sex drives, and the pill isn't always the culprit. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, the medical term, is recognized as the most prevalent sexual complaint among females. It can affect young and old alike, stemming from a complicated stew of factors from partner problems to medical issues, like depression (and some of its treatments) and waning hormones. Although no drug has been approved by the FDA, medical solutions do exist. "Something can be done," says Goldstein of Alvarado Hospital, though it usually requires a thorough medical and psychological evaluation.
For some women, especially those who are aging, low testosterone is the trouble. That hormone is linked to libido in both sexes, not just men. While deficiencies won't always create problems, specialists like Goldstein may use testosterone products that are approved for men to rekindle female desire. Of course, doses are scaled way back: Too much of the hormone can cause a collection of effects, like voice deepening, acne, and excessive hair growth. Testosterone replacement appears safe, says Goldstein, although some experts worry that its use in breast cancer survivors might trigger recurrence. Some also warn against using it in women who could become pregnant.
A nonhormonal option targets the hub of sexual desire: the brain. The antidepressant bupropion has been shown to lift libido in premenopausal women and may be helpful for others, too, says the University of Virginia's Clayton. She has studied its effects in research sponsored by the manufacturer of Wellbutrin, a brand name for bupropion.
One thing remains clear: As men have gotten pill after pill to combat a chief sexual problem, women who've lost their sexual appetite have been left hungry. Although pharmaceutical companies are racing to change that--drugs in the pipeline include a testosterone gel and a pill that reduces serotonin action in the brain--women will have to wait for their "pink Viagra." For now, treatment remains largely experimental and in the hands of a skilled few, agree Goldstein and Clayton, who have both done work for companies developing new medications. "We just don't have many options right now," says Clayton. "We're looking for equality."
When Sex Hurts
For Michele Gaymon, 38, pain with sex has been the norm from the very first encounter--and the burning discomfort that follows can last for hours or days afterward. "What is supposed to be pleasurable and fun is not," says the Somerset, N.J., woman. In relationships, Gaymon hasn't always disclosed her condition, choosing to bear the pain of intercourse silently. And while her most recent partner was understanding when she shared her condition, his fear of hurting her put a damper on their attempts.
While many women experience the itching or burning of a yeast infection from time to time, experts say that's nothing like the pain suffered by women with more serious conditions, which can range from endometriosis to an ovarian cyst to a disorder called vulvodynia. Millions of women experience pain associated with one or another of these conditions; vulvodynia alone may account for as many as 1 million new cases per year, according to a recent University of Michigan study.
Like many women, Gaymon saw multiple doctors in vain. Some initially told her to "relax, have a few drinks, calm down," recalls the senior account specialist at Merrill Lynch. Others misdiagnosed. "I was put on so many different yeast infection medications it was ridiculous," she says. Five gynecologists and two urologists later, she was finally diagnosed with vulvodynia, which made the entryway of her vagina become irritated with penetration.
The causes of vulvodynia, which can produce pain even when sex is not being attempted, are not well understood. Aside from the genitals, the nervous system is thought to be involved, says Jennifer Gunter, director of pelvic pain and vulvovaginal disorders at Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center. And because no medications are approved for the condition, she says, it's difficult for some to get treatments covered. Gunter and other experts retool therapies such as tricyclic antidepressants, antiseizure drugs, steroid and Botox injections, implantable devices to stimulate misfiring nerves, and surgery.
For Gaymon, relief has finally come with lidocaine cream, the drug Cymbalta, and physical therapy that involves techniques to pinpoint and relax muscle tension. She also found support in the National Vulvodynia Association. Getting help from multiple sources--including a sex therapist is often critical to treating the causes of painful intercourse, experts agree.
Gunter, who says Kaiser Permanente covers a full arsenal of treatments, estimates about 80 percent of her patients improve considerably. But patients who wait months or years let their pain become entrenched, complicating treatment. Says Gunter: "Pain begets pain; the more your nervous system is stimulated by pain, the more pain becomes your norm."
(c) 2008 U.S. News & World Report