"Each day in the U.S., 1,000 new dads become depressed, and according to some studies, that number is as high as 3,000," said Dr. Will Courtenay, a psychotherapist based in Berkeley, Calif., who specializes in helping men with postpartum depression, and founder of SadDaddy.com. "That's as many as one in four news dads who become depressed."
Symptoms of postpartum depression in fathers include feelings of sadness, a sense of worthlessness, and a loss of interest in sex or hobbies. According to Paul Ramchandani, MD, consultant in child and adolescent psychiatry at the University of Oxford, U.K., research shows that a father's depression can negatively impact a child's emotional and behavioral development further down the road.
The researchers analyzed data collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The study, based on questionnaires and psychological tests, included 8,431 fathers, 11,833 mothers, and 10,024 children. Data were collected eight weeks after the birth of a child, 21 months after the birth, and when the child was 3 years old.
"The mother's depression effect is slightly higher than in the father's," Ramchandani said. "Depression in mothers seems linked to a range of later problems in both boys and girls. The father's effect seems confined to boys and to behavior problems - but this is not definitive."
Postpartum Depression: A Family Problem
The findings don't surprise Shari I. Lusskin, MD, director of reproductive psychiatry at NYU School of Medicine. Postpartum depression, Lusskin says, isn't a mother's problem; it's a family problem.
"For a change, this study turns the spotlight away from women onto the rest of the family constellation," Lusskin said. "That is very important. Women get saddled with all the blame, which further stigmatizes postpartum depression and leads to women not getting diagnosed or treated. So now we are spreading the blame."
Treatment for Mom and Dad
"Depression is a medical condition, not a moral condition," Lusskin said. "If you feel that your mood is not what it should be after the birth of a child, or if you feel your partner's mood is abnormal, seek help and seek help early. The sooner you get treated, the better - and the fewer consequences for the mother, the father, and the child."
Ramchandani, too, agrees that the focus should be on the family.
"This study flags one thing: There is an effect of fathers' depression," he stated. "At the time of childbirth we focus on mothers. But actually we should be paying attention to the wider family. The birth of a child is a fantastic thing, but it is also a time of intense change, and that impacts the whole family." Treatment, Lusskin noted, should involve both partners - not just the one who seems to be depressed.
"If you seek help, advise your doctor to meet your partner whenever possible, to assess the partner's emotional well being and involve the partner in your recovery," she advised. "A woman may be depressed but if her partner is even more depressed and nonfunctional, she has to take care not only of herself but her partner - and can't rely on the partner to help with her own depression."
Even if a person's partner is not depressed, involving your significant other in postpartum-depression treatment minimizes mixed messages and unintentional interference with treatment.
"For example, if you going to give a woman antidepressant medications during breastfeeding, it is good to explain to her partner why you are making this risk/benefit choice, so the partner does not misunderstand and sabotage treatment," Lusskin said.
This article was supplemented with content from Menstuff.org.
Sources: Daniel DeNoon, Ramchandani, P. The Lancet, June 25, 2005; vol 365: pp 2201-2205. Paul Ramchandani, MD, consultant, child and adolescent psychiatry, University of Oxford, U.K. Shari I. Lusskin, MD, director of reproductive psychiatry; Dr. Will Courtenay, a psychotherapist based in Berkeley, Calif. and founder of SadDaddy.com; and clinical assistant professor of psychiatry and obstetrics/gynecology, NYU School of Medicine.