"Dads adjust to being home the same way moms do, and the same way anybody does to a new job: slowly," says Julie Shields, a McLean, Va.-based author of "How To Avoid The Mommy Trap" (Capital Books, $26.95). "It may be a little tougher for at-home dads, particularly if they are home as a result of losing their job, as they may feel stigmatized and as if they are not performing as 'real men' or 'good fathers' do."
If a working father loses his job and becomes the functioning parent at home, it's important for him to be cognizant of the way things were run in the house prior to his new lifestyle, whether it was with two working parents or a stay-at-home mom.
"Have an open mind about what's been done by your wife," says Jonathan Pochyly, Ph.D., a staff psychologist at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago. "You can have a healthy mix, but at least start off with trying to adjust to the system in place."
If you've lost your job, don't be afraid to address the situation with your children. Although you may think it might upset your children to hear that you're out of work, taking the time to talk about it gets the dialogue started.
"Explain to them in a way that's appropriate to their age," says Pochyly. "Prepare them for the change and be open about your feelings. Try and be consistent."
Ultimately, the psychological impact of being a stay- or work-at-home father will depend on how the father deals with the perceived and real stigmas attached to the situation.
"I have interviewed hundreds of at-home dads and found them all proud of the job they are doing and happy to be doing what they value as important," says Shields. "The benefits of being involved as an at-home father are enormous as they range from a close relationship between father and child to happier marriages."
Work From Home
Some fathers find the perfect compromise by creating their own work-at-home environment. By combining a new career with more responsibilities at home, these dads find that they can accomplish much on both a professional and personal level.
Planned in Advance
When Mike Paranzino found out a baby was on the way three years ago, his wife made it clear that she was going to be returning to her line of work.
"We both always expected that. We had talked about it," says Paranzino. "I decided to give staying at home a shot. I had nine months of warning to start planning."
Paranzino spent the time before the baby was born starting his own Bethesda, Md.-based consulting business. Once his son was born, he was able to be a stay-at-home father by working out of his home office.
"I was able to have somewhat of a part-time work situation instead of walking away completely from my career," Paranzino says. "Now I'm working during naps, at nights and on weekends because all I really need is a phone and a computer."
Adjusting to life as a stay-at-home father was not easy at first for Paranzino.
"It took me about a year to feel comfortable," he says. "My first year was a big adjustment. Sometimes being the only dad walking their kid in a stroller is tough. I guess there's probably a self-conscious element to it because it's considered unusual, but I love it. I have the ability to shape my child's life."