COLUMN ONE | MAPPING THE MIND
Brain's Darwin Machine
Scientists find evidence of a perpetual evolutionary battle in the mind. The process, they suspect, is the key to individuality.
POINTS OF LIGHT: Neuroscientist Fred Gage, left, and cancer biologist Alysson Muotri of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies wondered what produces individuality. The computer screen shows photos of brain neurons, which evolve throughout life. (Don Bartletti / LAT)
With growing frustration, the 31-year-old Brazilian cancer biologist stared through his microscope at slides of brain tissue for any evidence his experiment had succeeded. His eyes ached.
Maria Marchetto, 28, took pity on her husband. Let me look, she said. In a darkened room at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies here, she began to scrutinize the tissue samples for firefly flecks of fluorescent light.
Together, the couple stalked an elusive sequence of DNA hidden in the heredity of every human cell. The wayward strand appeared to seek out developing brain cells and, like a virus, arbitrarily alter their genetic makeup.
In this way, it might be partly responsible for the infinite variety of the mind.
In debates over creationist doctrines, evolutionary biologists often are hard-pressed to explain how nature could make something as intricate as the human brain. Even Alfred Wallace, the 19th century biologist who discovered natural selection with Charles Darwin, could not accept that such a flexible organ of learning and thought could emerge by trial and error.
No two brains are exactly alike, despite their overall anatomical similarity. Each brain changes throughout a lifetime, altered by experience and aging. Even the simplest mental activities, such as watching a moving dot, can involve slightly different areas in different people's brains, studies show.
Underlying every personal difference in thought, attitude and ability is an astonishing variety of brain cells, scientists have discovered.
Some neurons fire only when they perceive a straight vertical line, others when they are exposed to a right angle. Some respond to the emotions in a facial expression or to social cues. Others retain a memory long after conscious recollection has faded.
To respond so selectively to experience, each of these cells must vary incrementally from its neighbors, as singular as a face in a crowd.
Yet what could generate such diversity?
If Muotri's suspicion was correct, a peculiar string of biochemicals caused the billions of neurons in each person's brain to develop in distinctly different ways, so that even identical twins could develop minds of their own.
Muotri and Marchetto searched hundreds of slides for any sign that the DNA sequence had altered brain cells. Each tissue sample took an hour to analyze under ultraviolet light.
When Marchetto closed her eyes, she could see the glowing afterimage of neurons.
The spidery cells, she would say later, crawled through her sleep.
In every human brain, there are as many neurons as there are galaxies in the known universe — about 100 billion, drawn from 10,000 different cell types and woven into a three-dimensional tapestry, with threads of neural interconnections that number in the trillions.
Each one is tinder for the spark-of-life experience.
Memories are made of this gray matter. So are inspiration and imagination.
Electrochemical currents of intellect and emotion race though living labyrinths of neurons at 200 mph. When they are blocked, diverted or damaged, abilities atrophy. Personality disintegrates.