December 6, 2010
If "'Tis the season to be jolly'" isn't quite resonating with you, it's possible you're experiencing symptoms of a winter-related form of depression called seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Symptoms can appear as early as August and as late as January, and usually last through May.
Most people who suffer from SAD feel mildly to moderately depressed, but some people experience severe depression. The National Alliance on Mental Illness lists oversleeping, daytime fatigue, carbohydrate craving and weight gain as signs of SAD, as well as symptoms of generalized depression, such as decreased sexual interest, lethargy, hopelessness, suicidal thoughts and loss of interest in your normal activities. Symptoms vary from person to person.
To be diagnosed with SAD, "An individual must exhibit the depressive symptoms a minimum of two years in a row, and the symptoms must appear only when a certain season starts," said Daniela Roher, PhD, LPC, a psychotherapist with offices in Scottsdale and Carefree, Arizona. "Often the season is winter, but not necessarily," Dr. Roher said. "The peak of SAD in Arizona is August, when there are a lot of cloudy days because of monsoon season."
Let the sunshine in
Because SAD is more common in northern states (which receive less winter sunlight than southern states), and because light therapy is an effective treatment for SAD, reduced hours of sunshine appear to be a major contributing factor to the disorder.
According to NAMI, studies show that bright white fluorescent light, with color temperatures between 3,000 and 6,500 degrees Kelvin, can reverse SAD symptoms. Lower color temperatures produce less glare and higher color temperatures produce a skylight hue.
Light therapy can begin to alleviate symptoms within days of starting treatment. Studies suggest that when patients use light therapy throughout the season, between 50 and 80 percent show complete remission of symptoms. Daily sessions typically range from 20 to 60 minutes, depending in part on the light intensity used (lower intensities require longer sessions).
Since the healing effect of light therapy may be associated with the patient's internal circadian rhythm clock, most patients benefit by morning exposure because it moves up the clock. You can assess your circadian rhythm type at the nonprofit Center for Environmental Therapeutics (CET). CET offers extensive information about bright light therapy, too.
Additional treatment options
Other treatments that have proven effective, according to the National Institutes of Health and MayoClinic.com, include:
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