The company tapped the country's top scientists at Argonne National Lab in Illinois, and U.S. taxpayers pledged up to $118 million in federal stimulus funds and $80 million in state and local incentives to help Ener1 produce cutting-edge battery technology for electric cars and the U.S. military.
That nation, it turns out, is Russia.
A little more than a year after Biden's visit to Ener1's Indiana manufacturing plant, the company's technology is owned outright by Boris Zingarevich, a Russian businessman with ties to Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, a fact that concerns some technology experts in the U.S.
Zingarevich acquired Ener1 out of bankruptcy March 30 with an agreement to infuse $81 million in financing, giving him a sophisticated line of batteries that can power electric cars, store electricity for power grids and supply portable power for soldiers. His plans for Ener1 aren't known. A company spokesman declined to comment, saying Ener1 is privately held. Zingarevich couldn't be reached for comment.
The deal for Ener1 shows how the global economy can blur the lines between private business and national interest.
While there have been instances of Russian nationals accused of using illegal means to acquire U.S. technology, U.S. government officials said there is no law that bans transferring technology paid for by U.S. taxpayers to foreigners.
Wealthy Russians are major investors in the U.S., owning stakes in companies such as Facebook and Twitter, and Zingarevich was Ener1's largest shareholder from the beginning in 2002. Yet there is a big difference between being a shareholder and gaining control of a company.
"In a company whose ownership is connected to Medvedev, you have a golden opportunity for a military technology transfer and, perhaps, civil transfer from the U.S. to Russia at no cost," said Stephen Blank, an expert on Russia and a research professor of national security affairs for the Strategic Studies Institute at the United States Army War College.
Under Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, Blank said, Russia has expanded efforts to obtain high-tech energy-related technology from the U.S. through both illicit and legal means as Russia tries to reduce its reliance on hydrocarbons. Russia is second only to China in trying to gain high-tech information related to military uses, energy generation and manufacturing, according to the U.S. Office of the National Counterintelligence Executive.
In the case of Ener1, neither the Department of Energy nor the Navy checked on foreign ownership before awarding the company grants and research and development contracts. The Army, which also awarded contracts, said individual employees underwent routine background checks as contractors, but scrutinizing the company's ownership structure was not part of its purview.
The Department of Energy, in an email, said it was only interested in whether the company could successfully produce and sell its batteries. The Navy said it didn't place restrictions on foreign access to the company's work on unmanned aerial vehicles, a highly sought-after technology, according to the intelligence community, or to battery technology that could be used to track U.S. military personnel.
Despite the fact that the company's Russian investment didn't worry the DOE or Pentagon, others in the U.S. government were concerned about Russian participation for some time.
Citing national security concerns, U.S. Rep. Cliff Stearns, R-Fla., chairman of the Energy and Commerce Committee's Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, is seeking internal documents from the White House, Department of Energy, Ener1 and its EnerDel battery unit, his office confirmed.
"There is definitely a growing concern about a foreign-controlled or owned company attempting to gain a foothold into our supply chain in the United States," said Stearns, whose subcommittee held a hearing March 27 about such threats. "We need to make sure the federal government isn't an unwitting accomplice to the theft of our own national secrets by providing them with multimillion-dollar government grants,'' he said in a statement, referring to battery technology produced in concert with U.S. scientists.
The U.S. has been leery of foreign control of U.S. energy companies in the past. In 2005, a bid by a Chinese government-owned firm to purchase Unocal, then the ninth-largest U.S. oil and gas producer, set off a firestorm of political controversy. CNOOC Ltd. had outbid Chevron Corp. by about $1.5 billion for Unocal. But after concerns were raised that the transaction was little more than a thinly masked move by China to corner oil supplies, CNOOC withdrew its bid.
Ener1 marks the second major case of the U.S. losing control of a stimulus project. The Department of Energy's $535 million loan guarantee to Solyndra to produce solar panels was aimed at spurring alternative energy growth in the U.S. and to lessen dependence on fossil fuels. Instead, competition from China felled Solyndra last year, which left the U.S. to pay the bill.
"Instead of producing thousands of 'clean energy' jobs, the administration's loan guarantee and grant programs are yielding bankruptcies and the squandering of taxpayer dollars," Stearns said. "Only two days after President Obama highlighted federal investments in high-tech batteries in his State of the Union address earlier this year, Ener1 joined Solyndra, Beacon Power, Evergreen Solar, SpectraWatt and AES in bankruptcy — all recipients of taxpayer dollars."