Megan Mocik never envisioned herself as a stay-at-home mother.
After having twins four years ago, the former marketing manager for New York-based International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. was determined to press on with a career, even one that came with lengthy commutes and long workdays. But getting back into the workforce proved difficult and came with unappealing trade-offs.
The Bel Air woman chose a path taken by more mothers today, choosing to stay home with the kids —reversing a decades-long trend.
"I didn't want to find a job that just would make enough money to put them in day care," said Mocik, who moved from New Jersey three years ago with her husband and then-infants. "You go through this thing of missing the everyday excitement of work and challenging myself and putting forth that creative effort, but at the same time, I love being able to be here with my girls and watch them develop and grow and reach all these milestones."
Those who stay home now make up close to a third of the nation's mothers, a share that slid to a modern-era low of 23 percent in 1999, research shows. Factors in the change range from a tight job market to the child-rearing attitudes of immigrants, according to a recent Pew Research Center analysis, which bolstered similar findings from 2010. Like Mocik, more mothers are changing course after seeing a significant chunk of family earnings go to child care costs, which soared nearly 20 percent in the past decade, according to the advocacy group Child Care Aware.
The increase in stay-at-home moms reverses a trend that started in the mid-20th century as more women entered the workforce, acceptance of working moms grew and families shouldered rising expenses with double incomes.
"Overall since the late '60s, there's been a large, notable drop in the share of stay-at-home moms," said Gretchen Livingston, a senior researcher at Pew. While the more recent increase is small in comparison, "It was still interesting to see that there was an increase at all."
Rising unemployment likely played a role in recent years, Pew found in the study, which was released in April, but the uptick in at-home moms occurred during non-recessionary times, too. Rising immigration contributed as well, with researchers finding that nearly three-quarters of Hispanics believe children are better off when a parent stays home, compared with 57 percent of both whites and African-Americans.
For many newer stay-at-home moms, the decision comes down to child care expenses — and seeking greater stability at home.
"One of the issues we come across a lot is the expense of child care," said Jennifer Sabatini Fraone, associate director of marketing at the Boston College Center for Work & Family, which studies work and family issues and helps corporations achieve flexible workplace practices. "The cost of child care has grown dramatically. Some moms are opting out of the workforce not because they don't want to work but they can't make ends meet even if they're working."
Amy Favinger, 33, a former teacher at Hillcrest Elementary School in Catonsville who is married to a software engineer, worked full time after her first two children, now 5 and 4, were born. But it was not easy.
"With both of us working, it felt like somebody was always sick or had a doctor's appointment," the Ellicott City resident recalled. "I couldn't be a 100 percent teacher and I couldn't be a 100 percent parent. I felt I was being mediocre at both and wanted to put my energy either into my own children or … into my classroom children."
As she prepared for the birth of their third child, now 2, she realized, "My teaching salary was going to the day care for two, and it didn't make any sense for three."
Favinger took a two-year "child rearing" leave from the Baltimore County school system, and now, expecting her fourth child in June, has applied for an additional two years of leave. She supplements the family income by tutoring in elementary school subjects and hasn't decided whether she will return to work.
"If I decide to go back it will be a big adjustment," she said. "We'll have to figure out the schedule and what works best. I just find that right now [staying home] works well. It allows my husband to stay at work longer or go in earlier."
Last year, Denise Tripp faced a similar dilemma.
She was working 30 hours a week teaching Spanish in Howard County public schools while her 2-year-old daughter was in day care up to 25 hours a week. The 42-year-old Ellicott City resident also has three school-age children from a previous marriage and a stepson, all of whom live with her and her husband. When they had a baby nine months ago, and Tripp's job increased to full time, she decided to stay home, figuring that even with a higher salary they'd lose money on the child care costs. Even part-time work had come to mean a home out of control, between appointments, kids' activities and work that she handled at night.
"We were crazy," Tripp said. "If the house is suffering and … there's no food, and the shampoo has all run out and no one's been to the dentist or the pediatrician, are we really gaining that much so we can afford a better vacation or have more clothes?"
About two-thirds of the nation's 10.4 million stay-at-home moms have working husbands and have chosen the child caretaker role, the Pew study found. But increasingly mothers are staying home because they can't find work or are disabled or attending school. Since 2000, the percentage of stay-at-home moms who couldn't find work jumped from 1 percent to 6 percent. Single mothers — who account for about 20 percent of at-home moms — were more likely than married moms to stay home because they couldn't find a job.
Mocik said she spent about a year looking for work before giving up. Her family took a financial hit — she and her husband earned similar salaries.