Maryland's timber industry

Timber is sorted and awaits processing at Edrich Lumber in Randallstown. Maryland's trees on private and public land are a $4 billion industry. (Doug Kapustin / October 26, 2012)

If a tree falls in a Maryland forest, does anyone know its value?

State Forester Steve Koehn threw back his head and laughed when asked that question. And then he jumped at the chance to shed some light on what he calls one of Maryland's best-kept secrets.

"Forest products are a $4 billion-a-year industry in Maryland," he said. "For comparison, seafood is a $950 million industry."

Koehn stood on a gentle slope in the middle of a towering stand of poplar trees, their golden leaves electrified by a bright fall sun. Eighteen months ago, loggers harvested that private plot in western Baltimore County, removing about half of the trees.

The landowner made money by selling the timber rights. Loggers got a paycheck. And sawmills turned the harvest into lumber, mulch and fuel.

Sounds simple.

It isn't.

While Maryland has 2.5 million acres of forest — 41 percent of the state's landmass — few of the tracts are expansive. The state owns about a half-million acres, about 211,000 of them contained in 10 state forests from Western Maryland to the Eastern Shore.

The rest are a patchwork of privately held tracts averaging 35 acres each.

To gain access to the raw material that drives what is the state's fourth-largest industry, Koehn and his staff of foresters go door-to-door, preaching the gospel of a green, renewable economy.

"We're not mining the timber. We're managing it," Koehn likes to say. "We'll run out of loggers and sawmills long before we run out of wood."

That philosophy differs greatly from the one used by 19th-century loggers, who cleared forests that stood in the way of farms and construction. As a result, by the early 1900s, "the forests of Maryland consisted primarily of stumps, seedlings and saplings," according to the official history maintained by the state Forestry Service.

Gradually, however, the state shifted from being a passive custodian of forests to a manager of a rejuvenating resource.

Recently, Maryland has been growing 30 percent more wood than it cuts and producing 100 million board feet a year — or enough wood to build more than 3,300 average-size houses. The top five species milled are oak, poplar, maple, pine and cherry.

Forest products are the biggest industry in Western Maryland and No. 2 on the Eastern Shore behind poultry. Statewide, forestry supports more than 10,000 jobs, according to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.

About 75 percent of timber harvested in Maryland is milled here at two dozen licensed sawmills. Much of it goes out of state for additional processing; the rest stays in Maryland, where companies like Edrich Lumber Inc. turn out boards, siding, wood chips and mulch.

"Nothing finds its way into the Dumpster. Everything is used," said Doug Wolinski, president of Edrich Lumber, a Windsor Mill sawmill that has been in business for 50 years.

Edrich is the largest sawmill in Baltimore County. It grew side-by-side with a dairy farm also owned by Edward Stanfield and his two sons, Edward Jr., who ran the farm, and Richard, who managed the lumber business.

The family farm still produces corn for Safeway and Wegman's. The lumberyard's 51 employees turn out 2 million board feet annually, plus mulch and wood chips. It also sells low-grade wood to pallet manufacturers.

"Until recently, it's been a lot of long, hard hours for minimal return," Wolinski said. "Lumber is a commodity-driven item. You have to stay in the market range or you'll have a lot of lumber sitting around. But things are starting to look a little better. In the last six to eight months, there's been a upturn in prices."